Prospects for digital transformation in Arab countries
The article analyzes the state and prospects for digital transformation of the Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa with a view to summarizing the available statistical and empirical data relating to the adoption of information and communication technologies (ICT) by both private users and governments, state and business structures of the region in question. The article provides specifi c examples of the successful use of high technologies in various sectors of the economy and life of the Arab countries. Besides, the reasons for the lagging of the Middle East and North Africa in terms of contribution of digitalization to GDP, to the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, as well as to human capital, are being investigated. In particular, there is a fairly low level of investment in the Arab countries in venture capital, which is a driver of innovation. Special attention is given to the need for digitalization of the learning processes in the region in question (from elementary school to higher education), including its reorientation towards the acquisition of new knowledge and skills, so that the qualifi cations of future high-tech specialists meet the market requirements.
Features of international economic integration
The article reveals the advantages of an open government policy on the international integration of individual countries into the world economy. Th e author highlights the risks arising from the economic integration of national banking systems. It is noted that the openness of national banking systems and admission of foreign institutions to the national capital markets, consistent with the priorities of the fi nancial and economic security, could improve the standards of living and ensure the economic sustainability.
Foreign economic relations
Currency control in Russia: archaism or necessity
Currently, we still have currency control regulations that create barriers to currency operations and signifi cantly complicate the foreign exchange residents’ ordinary course of business (Russian companies and citizens). Besides, the currency control does not solve macroeconomic problems, but is used to address tax issues and to prevent money laundering in international trade. Th e article proposes measures aiming to improve tax administration, increase the effi ciency of international tax information exchange and anti-money laundering measures. Th e reform of the foreign exchange regulation system will allow to abolish the archaic currency restrictions and use alternative instruments to control cash flows.
Russian-German economic cooperation under sanctions
The relevance of the article is justifi ed by the fact that bilateral economic relations, in particular with such important partner of Russia as Germany, have been changing in terms of global challenges. Th e purpose is to reveal the impact of sanctions on the development of these economic
relations using economic-statistical, comparative methods and the content analysis. It is revealed that despite signifi cant decrease in German foreign direct investment in Russia the cooperation between the two countries has been expanding in other areas, particularly, in terms of localization of production activities with German participation.
Determinants of international trade growth under hyper-globalization and digitalization
Th e article analyzes and summarizes trends in international trade in the conditions of new
factors: unstable world economy, hyper-globalization impact, increasing protectionist attitudes
in foreign trade of the world economies. Some conclusions concerning the infl uence of modern
international trade on the polarization of income in scales of the world economy are made. Special
attention is given to the assessment of peculiarities and potential of international trade growth
under digitalization and digital transformations.
Modern features of commodity futures and options trading
The article provides an overview of the current global futures and options trading trends, the role of an international commodity exchange is determined as an integral part of global exchange markets. The article analyzes historical aspects of the leading commodity exchanges’ activities
in the USA, Europe and China, underlines the enhanced commodities futures trading and the emergence of new types of commodity futures. The author expresses the opinion that at present serious attempts to develop futures trading in Russia in line with modern world practice are made.
Development of industrial cooperation within the EAEU
In the article, the authors consider the gradual development of industrial cooperation between the member states of the Eurasian Economic Union. Th ey analyze the main regulations and cooperation expansion trends between the industrial enterprises of the Union. Special attention is paid to the cooperation in manufacturing. Th e authors calculated the Spearman coeffi cient refl ecting the degree of coincidence of the ranks of commodity items in the mutual trade. Based on the calculation results, it was revealed that the increase in the index of coincidence of the ranks of
commodity items in mutual exports indicates the predominant development of mutual trade in goods belonging to one commodity group, that is, the deepening of intra-industry cooperation and the stimulating eff ect of this cooperation on the growth of mutual trade.
Development of GTI Mutual Trade (dynamics, structural changes, trends)
The author looks into the issues of the Greater Tumen Initiative (GTI) economic growth and its infl uence on economic prosperity and sustainable development of the member countries. With the empirical, theoretical and quantitative methods the author analyses the changes in mutual and foreign trade indicators characterizing the growth of the cross-border trade, exports and imports since 1996. It is concluded that the share of capital goods with the constant commodity groups of GTI cross-border trade increased while signifi cant structural changes in exports and imports
of the member countries and emergence of the new specialization centers are noted. The paper studies the commodity structure and exposes the state of integration processes in Russia and the Far East region within the Greater Tumen Initiative.
Factors of BRICS countries cooperation in the energy sector
The article analyzes the multilateral dimension of BRICS energy cooperation. Th rough comparison of the issue evolution with the global economic trends the author determines key drivers, which gave a boost to the collaborative activities of the member states in the energy sector
since 2014. Based on the role of countries in the international energy system, national energy strategies, current state of their fuel and energy sectors, existing trade and investment practice, the main factors and areas in multilateral cooperation as well as the possibilities for its further development are defi ned.
International legal framework for the current trade and economic cooperation between Russia and China
The article analyzes the legal framework for bilateral trade and economic cooperation between Russia and China in the context of expanding relationship in all spheres of mutually benefi cial Russian-Chinese cooperation. Th e author outlines the legal aspects of the regulation of the priority
areas and prospects for the economic, political and social cooperation. Th e current trade and economic relations and promising ways to develop them in the near future, taking into account the legal instruments governing now the bilateral cooperation between Russia and China, are considered. It is noted that the legal framework between the two countries should be improved and fostered.
5 - 2019