Russia - Latin America: Evolution of Trade under the Pandemic
The purchase of the Russian «Sputnik V» vaccine by seven countries in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC) draws attention to this region in terms of possible expansion of trade and economic relations between Russia and Latin American countries. Based on analysis of the evolution of Russia’s trade with the principal LAC countries, the changes in trade are assessed with the periodization in each of the previous decades, and emerging issues are identifi ed. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on trade of the LAC countries with Russia and their key trade partners that caused a plunge in exports and imports is revealed. It is concluded that the post-pandemic recovery of the Latin American countries creates new conditions for the resumption of trade growth and its restructuring, and opens up opportunities for new suppliers of goods and services to these countries. Russian exporters could also take advantage of this situation, especially those who use digitalization to promote their products in new markets.
Pharmaceuticals Imports in Russia
The authors examine the development of the pharmaceutical market in Russia. Due to the high expenditures on health care in the country and an increase in the level of combating diseases, the demand for drugs is growing at a fairly high rate. In this regard, despite the growth in domestic production of drugs, the imports of foreign drugs and substances are also growing. The domestic industry is expanding the production of pharmaceuticals, but lacks raw materials and substances. Serious eff orts are being made in Russia to develop pharmaceuticals to combat coronavirus. Russia’s pharmaceutical industry has developed a vaccine that is recognized in many countries. This allows us to hope for the possibility of developing and launching new eff ective drugs on the market.
Growth of Russia’s Cement and Cement Building Materials Market
The article examines the current state and prospects for the world cement market, and in particular the changes in Russia’s cement industry, the key trends and features of its growth. The authors identify the main commodity groups of cement, and analyze the demand for them now and for the period up to 2027. Th ey emphasize the importance of taking into account the recommendations of international organizations on compliance with environmental requirements. Special attention is paid to the leading countries producing cement such as the USA, China and India. The demand in China and India is expected to grow rapidly in the near term.
Formation and Development of Kazakhstan’s Pension System: Retrospective Analysis
Pension provision for a certain category of citizens is one of the priority areas of the social policy of any modern state. Over the years of independence in diffi cult social and economic and social and political conditions, an independent pension system of the Republic of Kazakhstan has been formed. With the changing social and economic environment it is constantly being modernized. Th e article analyzes the formation and development of the independent pension system of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Digital Transformation Trends in the Global Automotive Industry
In the last decade, digitalization has had a signifi cant impact on the global automotive industry resulting in the creation of new vehicles and types of mobility, and a change in consumption patterns and conditions of international competition. In these conditions, traditional transnational producers are increasingly vulnerable to it. Th e study found that the structure of participants in the global automotive industry is diversifying due to the involvement of new players (service providers, digital startups, technology giants), which leads to a change in the business models of key manufacturers that are becoming more diff erentiated.
Procurement Function of a Company in Foreign Trade: Improving the Operating Model
The article describes the relationship between the management mechanism and the operating model of a company/department. The analysis of the interpretation of terms by Russian and foreign experts is carried out. Th e author’s defi nition of the operating model is given and its components are described. The problems of determining the operational model and its optimization/ development through project activities are presented. The causes of such problems are identifi ed as well as suggestions for improving the operational model work are provided. The most standard components of the procurement operating model of an industrial enterprise are considered.
WTO Decision on Additional U.S. Duties on Chinese Imports
Dispute DS543 between China and the United States is unique for many reasons. It revealed a lot of complex issues. Among them, the meaning of the phrase “a settlement of the matter” under Article 12.7 of the DSU; whether economic considerations could fall within the scope of “public morals” under Article XX(a) of GATT 1994; what are the criteria for abuse of the WTO dispute settlement system; whether Article 11 of the DSU requires panels to take into account historical and practical aspects of bilateral relations between the disputing parties. There are no ready answers to these questions. Besides, each of them is of great importance both for the results of future disputes and for the further development of the WTO procedural law. Th e Panel Report also introduced for the fi rst time Section “Concluding Comments” in which the Panel shared its “observations” on some critical issues of law and legal process. Th e legal status of the Panel’s refl ections is unclear
Foreign economic relations
Japan’s Trade and Economic Relations: Current State and Prospects under COVID-19 Pandemic
Japan continues to be one of the leading countries in the world economy. Despite some decline in its share in world trade, it ranks fourth aft er China, the United States and Germany. Its external sector is highly competitive. Gradually yielding its position in a number of tradable industries to the major rivals from among rich and emerging countries, at the same time Japan signifi cantly increases its role in foreign direct investment in the manufacturing and services industries. Th e article analyzes the changes in the key trade indicators, the ratio of trade and foreign direct investment, and particularly its impact on the expansion of value chains and their role in maintaining the positions of Japanese companies in foreign markets. Besides, the sensitivity of Japan’s external sector to the COVID-19 pandemic at the macro and micro levels and its active participation in Asian regional integration and the restructuring of the operating and fi nancial activities of Japanese companies to overcome the crisis in the economy and foreign trade are assessed.
Necessary and Suffi cient Conditions for Export Operations
The article is devoted to analyzing the issues connected with the specifi c features of export operations of SMEs. The article defi nes the necessary conditions for enhancing the export potential of a manufacturer and the suffi cient conditions for export operations of SME, corresponding to the needs of overseas markets and ensuring the maximum performance on these markets. The actions aimed at providing the suffi cient conditions for export are described; the advantages of using e-marketplaces for SME as a part of suffi cient conditions are revealed.
The Impact of Interaction between Business and Government via Business Associations on Foreign Economic Policy
The article analyzes the institutionalization process of interaction between business associations representing and protecting their business interests and the state within the framework of making and executing political decisions. The key factors of this process were identifi ed, including formal regulatory rules and informal norms of business activities; management standards; transparency about goals, results and funding; prioritization of cooperation projects with the state; business environment. The eff ects of these factors are analyzed on the example of the activities of three business associations in Russia and Italy, and particularly implications for economic growth of these countries.
3 - 2021