International trade in post-crisis years (2010 - 2015) - new tendencies and some problems
The article describes significant trends in the development of the global economic development and international trade in 2010 - 2016. The author shows new directions and changes in the development of world trade and trade policy in these years. He indicates the increased of the developing countries role in the global economy and international trade in these years, the role of China as a important factor in the development of international trade. Also he notes the increased competition between China and the United States in the international economy, and stresses the main features and trends in the movement of world prices for the different product groups, and considers multilateral and regional methods of regulation of international trade, including the so-called «crisis of the WTO.» The article emphasizes the importance of enhancing the activity of the Russian Federation in the framework of multilateral economic diplomacy, and particularly in the WTO.
The World Trade Organization in the face of new challenges
The article deals with the current situation prevailing in the multilateral trade negotiations and examines the reasons that prevent the successful conclusion of the Doha Round. It is emphasized that new challenges arise not only to the WTO, but also to other international organizations that constitute the emerging global governance system. It is shown that the future development direction for the WTO might be increasing the role of plurilateral agreements. It is concluded that accession to the WTO had a positive effect on Russia’s economy. The major decisions of the last two conferences of the WTO are evaluated in terms of Russia’s interests.
Integration processes in North East Asia
The article is devoted to integration processes in North East Asia, the role of states in the world economic integration and the main norms of Regional Trade Agreements with their participation. The author analyzes the text of Free Trade Agreement between China and the Republic of Korea, which is a first stage of formation of the region-wide free trade area – North East Asia free trade area. The article considers the integrating and disintegrating factors, positions and interests of Japan, China and Republic of Korea, their economic cooperation that is a stimulus for increasing economic interdependence and complementarity in North East Asia.
Deliveries of counterfeit goods in Russia and abroad
The article describes the causes and development of production and distribution of counterfeit products on the world market. They iidentify the principal differences between counterfeit goods and products that meet the standards and rules of state regulation. The purpose of the expansion issue of counterfeit products is to maximize the company’s profi ts by full or partial disregard of features consumers demand in terms of quality and compliance with regulations to protect intellectual property by deception buyers. It has been established that the cause of the production of counterfeit products in Russia to a certain extent is a relatively liberal legislation on the control of counterfeiting of goods in comparison with other countries of the world. We give some rules in force in the United States, India and Russia. The authors try to point out the various areas of commercial policy for the production of counterfeit goods companies. Also they present real examples of the commercial policy of firms for the production and sales of counterfeit goods.
Experience of ASEAN countries in trade facilitation
ASEAN economic organization includes countries with different levels of economic development and extremely various rates in ease of doing business, but the countries have made significant progress on trade facilitation within the association. The ASEAN countries are at the final stage of implementing a unique regional system of “single window”. The article describes positions of countries in relation to the implementation of the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement, as well as key achievements of ASEAN countries in the field of harmonization and trade facilitation within the trade association. This experience is particularly relevant for the EAEU member states, where there is a need to develop mechanisms of “single window” implementation in the framework of the integration processes.
Russian foreign economic relations
Features of foreign economic relations for the development of Russian industry
The article deals with the problems of restoration and perfection of scientific and industrial potential of the country due to massive purchases of foreign licenses. Also the author analyses methods of use of inventions, know-how and other industrial property objects to create new techniques, technologies and materials, their modernization and import substitution at the level of the latest world achievements. The article shows the importance of the purchase foreign licenses as the main for the restoration and improvement of the scientific and industrial potential way in the Russian Federation, and on this basis to improve the socio-economic situation in the country as soon as possible.
International trade in goods: persistent current trends or a turning-point?
The article raises the question about the possibility of changing trends in international trade and its acceleration in the coming years. The author examines the main factors responsible for the current slowdown in international trade and concludes that the most fundamental of these is the aging of global value chains (GVC). In the present circumstances due to further fragmentation of production process and transfer of the increasing number of operations abroad the increase in transaction costs begins to exceed the benefits from lower production costs. The author believes that the sharp drop in oil prices in the second half of 2014 and consequently reduced shipping costs could raise profi tability of GVC again and accelerate international trade. The asymmetry of the actions of exporters and importers of raw materials in the face of falling oil prices is revealed. The absolute reduction in international trade in 2015 owes much to the fact that exporters, faced with a steep drop in income, immediately reduce consumption and imports. In contrast, importers often don’t hurry with increasing consumption and imports and do it with a delay of 1- 2 years. In view of the foregoing, the author supposes that 2016 could be the year of the long-awaited acceleration of international trade.
Russia’s food embargo (milk and dairy products) and customs regulation: economic effects
In the paper the authors estimate the volume and value of imports of group 04 of the unified Foreign Economic Activity Commodity Nomenclature of the Eurasian Economic Union (FEACN of the EEU) goods under embargo. Evaluations are based on the trade statistics of the customs service of the Russian Federation. The analysis has shown that the reduction in customs duty payments under group 04 FEACN of the EEU in 2015 compared to 2013 amounted to more than 315 million dollars. Regional structure of dairy products imports after the introduction of special economic measures has changed significantly with the Republic of Belarus remaining the major supplier of milk products to the territory of Russia.
Delegation of powers in practice corporate management
The article analyzes the important issue of corporate governance – delegation of authorities by the shareholders to the company’s executive bodies. Different structures of executive management bodies, which exist in the international practice, are described. The authors reveal the main stages of the process of the delegation of authorities: evaluation of the competence level of the executive management bodies, setting goals and objectives, establishment of the range of delegation, control and responsibility for the non-performance or improper performance of the duties within the range of delegated authorities. For the first time the article analyzes the application of the model of management through delegation of authorities and responsibilities to the organization of the corporate governance.
The analysis of amounts and structure of international transportation of goods by the Russian Railways in 2015
The authors analyze the role of Russian Railways to foreign economic relations of Russia. They consider the degree of participation of PJSC «Russian Railways» to provide foreign trade transportation and transport the international transit of goods. Also they analyze the ratio of volumes of transportations of export, import and transit traffic by rail in 2015 relative to 2014. They determine the amount and proportion of the basic directions of the international transport of goods: in countries near and far abroad, through the railway border crossings and by sea and river ports and analyze foreign trade and transit by rail through the ports of Russia, CIS and Baltic ports. They try to identify the main types of cargo transported by rail through the ports of Russia and CIS countries and the basic trend of international rail freight traffic in Russiaby the main directions.
Russia and trade disputes in the WTO: antidumping, countervailing and safeguard measures
After becoming a member of the WTO organization 3,5 years ago, Russia has gained the access to the system of judicial norms which are binding upon the members of this organization and which determine the guidelines in their trade policies. One of the most important mechanisms of the WTO, inter alia, is the possibility to advance the interests of domestic producers both on domestic and international markets. The WTO Agreements officially provide for the measures that are used to prevent unfair competition (dumping and subsidies) and/or to protect the domestic producers in case of fair competition (safeguards). Though Russian’s participation in in the WTO is not so long, a recapitulation on the basis of conducted investigations and the existing trade disputes between Russia and its trade partners could already be made.
7 - 2016