World economy

The global energy problem in the world economy

Author: Zakharov A.N.

The article describes key aspects of global energy issues, with an emphasis on energy security. The Russian Federation is to face three inter-related challenges: provide energy security, stimulate economic growth and protect the environment, reducing emissions of greenhouse gases that will reduce the level of air pollution and contribute to the global improvement of the atmosphere. The author analyzes the status and prospects of world energy markets and the forecast of their development for the period up to 2050. As the main trend the development of small-distributed generation is highlighted, primarily in developing countries. The article justifies the importance of energy efficiency increase in Russia. In our country per unit of GDP consumes two times more energy than the member countries of the IEA, but a noticeable improvement has not yet been achieved. Meanwhile, aging, and often obsolete infrastructure in the electricity and district heat is in urgent need of investment. Attracting investment in the modernization and improvement of energy efficiency can be provided with the following key measures: reducing the dependence of fuel and energy complex on equipment imports; the research of renewable energy sources (RES); development of the most cost-effective oil and gas reserves and the change in export strategy.

Prospects of Russia’s shelf projects in the Arctic Region

Authors: Ganjinova S.A., Savinov Y.A.

The article considers the prospects of the Arctic shelf exploration by Russia’s companies in conditions of geopolitical tensions. Due to the introduction of anti-Russian sanctions against the oil and gas industry, the intensity of international cooperation decreased and affected the pace of development of the whole Arctic region. The article also outlines the importance of creating a new industry in Russia focused on inventing and developing equipment for exploitation of oil and gas deposits on the shelf and expanding international collaboration for safe maintenance of Arctic megaprojects.

Tourism in the Economic Regions` Development (Case of Spain)

Author: Vyazovskaya V.V.

The article deals with the Spanish experience in the implementation of a number of regional policy instruments to reduce socio-economic disparities between the Spanish Autonomous regions. The paper presents Spain’s position on European regional tourism market and in the international ranking of the tourism sector competitiveness. The author examines the importance of tourism to stimulate the depressed regions development. The paper presents the key performance indicators depicting implementation of regional policies in the promotion of tourism and provides a list of Spanish Autonomous regions that received funding in the framework of regional initiatives.


World commodity markets

Climate challenges of the oil industry

Author: Garanina O.L.

The article examines the recent trends in global oil markets in the context of transition towards low-carbon energy system. It also discusses possible implications for international and Russian oil companies. Long-term oil demand projections show that oil demand will be driven by the emerging economies (China, India), while in OECD countries oil demand tends to decline. The article studies new challenges faced by international oil companies (demand uncertainty and “unburnable carbon” problem, raising environmental responsibility of investors), as well as possible ways to adapt oil companies’ strategies to new market conditions. Finally, market risks for Russian oil companies are discussed.


Foreign trade activity

Digital marketing for exporting chocolate to China

Authors: Andreeva O.D., Gililov I.R.

The authors consider the development trends of China’s chocolate market and various ways of using digital marketing in selling this product. The dynamics of demand for chocolate in China has been revealed, the high attractiveness of the chocolate market for foreign suppliers has been proved, and the main firms operating on the market have been identified. The expansion of sales of many goods in China via the Internet has been revealed, the features of digital marketing in China in the sale of consumer goods, in particular chocolate, have been analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the prospects for the development of Russia’s exports of chocolate to China.

Import substitution efficiency indicators

Authors: Losev A.A., Soloviev V. I., Sunchalin A.M.

Russia’s goods and services imports are studied by good items, by groups of goods, and by industry. Analytical tools to assess the effectiveness of Russian imports of goods and services, and the system of import substitution efficiency indicators are proposed. A methodology for transition keys generation from All-Russian Classification of Economic Activities (OKVED) to the Combined Nomenclature (TNVED) is proposed to compare the volumes of Russian production and exports with domestic consumption and imports. The system of import substitution efficiency indicators is developed to analyze the substitution level of imported goods by domestic products and volumes redistribution through the Eurasian Union mutual trade. The article is based on the results of the publicly funded research carried out at the request of the Financial University in 2016.

WTO Dispute Settlement Body Panel found Russia’s ban on the importation of EU pigs and pork to be inconsistent with SPS Agreement

Author: Nikitin S.I.

Russia imposed an EU-wide import ban, as well as individual import bans in respect of products originating in four EU member States: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (EU member State bans) affecting the importation of live pigs and their genetic material, pork, pork products, purportedly because of concerns related to cases of African swine fever. The WTO Dispute Settlement Body established a panel following the European Union request concerning Russian Federation ban. Medium-term outlook for trade disputes between Russia and EU on animal origin goods will be determined providing the case of Russian ban on European pigs imports.

Procurement policy of foreign trade organizations

Authors: Bolgar D.G., Dukanich L. V., Nikolaeva M.A.

This article deals with the procurement policy of foreign trade organizations. The relationship between the procurement policy and the Quality Management System is shown, the requirements for which are regulated by the international standard ISO - 9001. For the first time the definition of “procurement policy” is formulated, its goals, objectives and main directions of the policy are defined. The justification for choosing each of the five main policy directions is given. The authors assess possible risks from the choice and implementation of the policy direction suggesting the measures to prevent or mitigate the risks. The relationship between the procurement policy directions and the directions of the assortment, pricing, communication policies as well as the quality policy is shown.


Export base of Russia

Perestroyka in Russian exports

Author: Spartak A.N.

The article reveals controversial tendencies in Russian exports in the mid of the current decade: against significantly contracting export value it shows positive trends in exports development – growth in volume, promising structural shifts, emergence of new export items and spheres of country’s international specialization, expansion on dynamic foreign markets, increasing number of exporting enterprises. Special focus is made on non-raw and non-energy exports with significant market potential. The article also gives an assessment of the external impediments to Russian exports (i.a. growing competitive pressures from China and other BRICS countries, fragmentation of the world trading system, geopolitical tensions and anti-Russian sanctions), which could be addressed by product and geographical diversifi cation of foreign sales.


Customs regulation

Customs facilities under the law of the Eurasian Economic Union and the Russian Federation legislation

Author: Khalipov S.V.

The article analyzes the law of the Eurasian Economic Union and the Russian Federation legislation on customs in terms of granting customs facilities. It deals with the benefits of paying customs duties, taxes and customs charges; of facilitating customs operations; of exemption from customs screening and from applying prohibitions and restrictions to goods. The legal fundamentals of non-tariff and technical regulation under the Eurasian Economic Union conditions are examined. The significance of using the term customs facilities when transferring goods across the customs frontier of the Eurasian Economic Union is evaluated.


Transport

Some aspects of the possibility of application of electronic bills of lading in petrotraders’ practice

Authors: Golubchik A.M., Katykha P.B.

Electronic technologies have very strongly integrated into our lives. The corporate world mastered Internet banking only 25-30 years ago, and already today we are not afraid to make multimillion transactions managing the account on the Internet and being sometimes for thousands of kilometers from the bank. Approximately in the same time arose the idea to simplify the document flow for overseas shipments by converting bill of lading into electronic form. The idea of endorsing a bill of lading with a click of a computer mouse looks very attractive and demands the minimum labor costs.
The electronic format of such document as a bill of lading remains a subject of numerous disputes and publications for at least the last twenty five years. In the article, the advantages and prospects for application of electronic bills of lading when transporting oil freights are considered, and also the factors impeding their application are analyzed.


From the Editor

On May 12, 2017, Dyumulen I.I. professor of Russian Foreign Trade Academy would have been ninety.

This material is dedicated to the 90th posthumous anniversary of Ippolit Ippolitovich Dyumulen, an outstanding Russian scientist, brilliant economist, honored Russian scientist, Doctor of Economics, Professor of the Russian Foreign Trade Academy, Department of foreign trade and international transactions.


Research reviews

The analysis of Russia’s railway transport system supporting foreign economic activities and exports of transport services

Author: Gorchakova O.V.

The article analyzes the Russian railway transport system supporting foreign trade activities and exports of transport services. The brief theoretical and methodological analysis of the defi nition of foreign economic activity and exports of transport services is provided. The volumes of the rail freight transport by type of goods and by country of destination are determined. The structure of export cargo transportation by rail is examined; rail freight volumes by type of goods are analyzed. Besides, the author examines the amount of transit traffic and transit potential of Russia.



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4 - 2017


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